Yazd formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, and it is currently 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the “City of Windcatchers” (Shahr-e Badgirha) from its many examples. It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars (cisterns), qanats (underground channels), yakhchals (coolers), Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth (Persian termeh), silk weaving, Persian Cotton Candy, and its time-honored confectioneries.
The name is derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler of Persia. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times. The word yazd means God. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian by paying a levy even after its conquest by Muslims, and Islam only gradually became the dominant religion in the city.
Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of access, Yazd remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those suffered from destruction in other parts of Persian Empire during the Mongol invasion. In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo, who remarked on the city’s fine silk-weaving industry. In The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way (The original context translated by Henry Yule) :
“It is a good and noble city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can easily ride through; and in them there is great sport to be had in hunting and hawking, there being partridges and quails and abundance of other game, so that the merchants who pass that way have plenty of diversion. There are also wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom which is called Kerman.”
Yazd briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, and was unsuccessfully besieged in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) mosque, arguably the city’s greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty(18th century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.
Under the rule of the Safavid (16th century), some people migrated from Yazd and settled in an area that is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement, which was named Yazdi, was located in what is now Farah City in the province of the same name in Afghanistan. Even today, people from this area speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd.
One of the notable things about Yazd is its family-centered culture. According to official statistics from Iran’s National Organization for Civil Registration, Yazd is among the three cities with the lowest divorce rates in Iran.
Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with a yearly precipitation amount of 49 millimetres (1.9 in) and only 23 days of precipitation, which is also the hottest city north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C (104 °F) in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C (32 °F).
Attractions of yazd :
Soaring above the old city, this magnificent building is graced with a tiled entrance portal (one of the tallest in Iran), flanked by two 48m-high minarets and adorned with inscriptions from the 15th century.
Amir Chakhmaq Mosque Complex
The stunning three-storey facade of this Hosseinieh is one of the largest such structures in Iran.
With its numerous badgirs (windtowers) rising above a labyrinth of adobe roofs, the historic old city of Yazd is one of the oldest towns on earth and listed as a Unesco World Heritage site.
Yazd Water Museum
Yazd is famous for its qanats (underground aqueducts) and this museum, one of the best of its kind, is devoted to the brave men who built them.
Saheb A Zaman Zurkhaneh
The cavernous “ab anbar” (water reservoir), built around 1580, resembles a 29m-high standing egg from the inside and crowned with five burly badgirs.
Within 30 minutes (15km) drive of Yazd city centre, this belt of rippling sand dunes is a popular spot to watch the sun set across the desert landscape.
Often referred to as the Zoroastrian Fire Temple, this elegant neoclassical building, reflected in an oval pool in the garden courtyard, houses a flame that is said to have been burning since about AD 470.
This 150-year-old building is one of the best-preserved Qajar-era houses in Yazd. The badgirs, traditional doors, stained-glass windows, elegant archways and alcoves distinguish it as one of the city’s grandest home.
Mirror & Lighting Museum
This elegant 20th-century mansion, dating from the 1940s, was confiscated after the 1978 revolution and has been converted into a quirky and fun museum celebrating the wonder of reflection.
Abandoned in the 1960s, these evocative Zoroastrian Towers of Silence are set on two lonely, barren hilltops on the southern outskirts of Yazd.
Bagh-e Dolat Abad
Once a residence of Persian regent Karim Khan Zand, this small pavilion set amid Unesco-listed gardens was built around 1750.
The lanes off Kashani St, near the Mirror & Lighting Museum, are home to a number of henna mills. With their huge grinding stones, rotated against a flat plate on a brick plinth.
Imam Zadeh Jafar
This magnificent modern shrine is best experienced at night when the lighting is inspirational, both from the courtyard outside and from within the elaborately mirrored inner sanctum that houses the tomb.
Bogheh-ye Sayyed Roknaddin
The beautiful blue-tiled dome of the tomb of local Islamic notable Sayyed Roknaddin Mohammed Qazi is visible from any elevated point in the city.
This 15th-century domed school is known as Alexander’s Prison because of a reference to this apparently dastardly place in a Hafez poem.
Tomb of the 12 Imams
The early-11th-century brick Tomb of the 12 Imams, neighbouring Alexander’s Prison, forms one side of Zaiee Sq, in the heart of Yazd’s historic old city.
Amir Chakhmaq Mosque
Forming part of the Amir Chakhmaq Mosque Complex, this mosque is overshadowed by the iconic neighbouring Hosseinieh – one of the most photographed sites in Iran.
Haftom-e Tir Park
Often dotted with the tents of refugees being granted free medical treatment in Iran, this park offers a shady place to wander on a hot summer’s day.
This structure in the middle of the city is a useful landmark for navigating between Yazd’s key sights and bazaars.
Souvenir and food of yazd :
Souvenir of yazd it’s :
, Pottery and Ceramics
must-eat food from yazd :
Shuli, Tās kebab-e shotor, Yazdi sweets, Yazdi tea, Yazdi cupcakes
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